NAS Countermeasures: Nucleophilic Attack Strategies

Quanta X Technology – support@quantaxtechnology.com

www.quantadose.com

Abstract

NAS Countermeasures provide a scalable method to reduce the airborne spread of bio-agents through hydroxylated humidification to regain our territorial advantage for human-occupied areas in a battle we are out-numbered trillions to one.

The use of a fully submersible “Hydroxyl Reactor” using an electrolytic process between ruthenium coated plates with titanium electrodes which create atomic oxygen among other ionic dissociation’s involving innate properties of water that interact with a very complex mix of solids. The catalytic beads are comprised of several different types of salt crystals and various oxides inside the Hydroxyl Reactor that produces a tremendous improvement in air humidification’s role in bio-agent suppression.

These catalytic beads are essentially storage of hydrogen and oxygen submerged in the fuel needed, just plain water, for the most beneficial catalytic reactions to occur. When the catalytic beads are combined with free radicals produced by electrolysis, this new process of ionic water dissociation represents a way to generate a substantial increase in our ability to create very high concentrations of completely safe airborne reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS a chemically reactive species containing oxygen as a result of hydrogen bonds being stripped from water molecules before subjected to airborne atomization from within the form factor of a quickly produced high-output ultrasonic humidifier.

1. Introduction

Current non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are the only set of pandemic countermeasures that haven’t changed much over recorded history. Outlining the very serious global shortsightedness to use the modern quantum understanding and technology we have at our disposal to regain territorial advantages when under siege from a bio-threat. In this paper, we address one of the many such technologies to assist in strategic non-pharmaceutical countermeasures (SNPCs). Advancements in technology allow us to implement a counter-battery suppression approach to airborne biological threats. Nucleophilic Attack Strategies (NAS) Countermeasures are favorable simply because of how easy it will be to protect those at risk with plug-and-play ease of operation, production scalability, and improvement of the technology as investments increase in strategic non-pharmaceutical technology-based countermeasures.

2. Quanta X (q=1+X) Airborne Infection Probability

William Firth Wells was born in Boston in 1887; he was a military-trained sanitary engineer, and perhaps the most precise thinker on the subject of airborne infections to date. Wells understood that inhalation and infection was an inherently statistical process involving probabilities due to dilution and other factors, and he introduced the Poisson distribution with his definition of quanta to define a single unit of airborne contagion.

Not knowing for sure how many airborne infectious particles (conceivably containing more than one contagious microorganism), Wells used quantum or quanta (q) to describe whatever that unknown number was.

“The response induced by infective droplet nuclei is quantal; the probability that an airborne particle, drifting at random indoors, will be breathed before it is vented is governed by chance. The number of occupants who become infected bears a Poisson relation to the number of infective particles which they breathe” – (pp 140-141 Wells, 1955)

As recent as September, 8th 2020, Wells’ has been further vindicated for his valuable forethought and experimental results that lead to the same conclusion as one of today’s leading infectious disease doctors and Professor of Infectious Diseases at the University of California Monica Gandhi, whose research is now published in New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). This recent research suggests that wearing a mask could reduce the number of particles that come into contact with your nose and mouth, and that fewer particles result in a less severe disease.

This is a combined 100 years of scientific fact that suppressing exposure suppresses disease!

Wells was the first to factor the quantum of infection into an equation for the relationship of virus particles and infection rates, written as q=1+X (Quanta X)

Wells evidence showed that infection could be caused by inhaling, on average, just one culturable airborne particle, so q=1. However, in a more resistant host like a previously infected person, for example, many inhaled infectious droplet nuclei might not result in sustained infection because of enhanced innate, adaptive, or even “learned” immunity, as was recently suggested by Dr. Monica Gandhi.

Wells concluded that with more significant host response, many more inhalations might be necessary for transmission and sustained infection, so q=1+X (Quanta X), the exact number rarely known and likely to be highly variable by the immune status, organism virulence, and even region of the body infected first.

Wells later conducted seminal experiments at Harvard University between 1930-1937, and the University of Pennsylvania 1937-1944, producing clear evidence for the airborne spread of infection.

Wells went on to challenge mainstream popular belief at the time: summarized in his still relevant 1955 masterwork, “Airborne Contagion and Air Hygiene: An Ecological Study of Droplet Infections,” published by Harvard University Press.

3. Quanta X Technology (q=1+X+T) Reducing Airborne Infection Probability

William Firth Wells’ work still holds its relevance today; however, there is a crucial variable missing from his equation that Wells didn’t have access to when he was born 133 years ago! Technology (T)!

It was Wells who in the 1930s pioneered UVGI for air disinfection technology in his earliest attempts to use technology to influence the critical value of X. If Wells were alive today, he would agree, the equation that neutralizes and suppresses (X) the threat of airborne bio-agents he spent his life protecting people from, is written like this (q=1+X+T) Quanta X Technology.

William Firth Wells understood the quanta of bio-agents like Tesla understood the quanta of energy. Among all of the outstanding achievements accredited to Wells’ work, it was also Wells that first suggested 6 feet distance for large aerosolized particles, which are still the standard used today. It was a diagram, first developed by W. F. Wells in 1934, that was referred to as the Wells curve (or Wells evaporation falling curve of droplets),

Quanta X uses (T) Technology to influence the Wells curve through suppressing the quantal value of X (q=1+X), the number of viral airborne infectious particles in the air and on surfaces. Therefore statistically reducing the probability of inhalation and severe infection by lowering the Quanta value of X, symbolizing the number of infectious aerosolized virus particles available to infect a host.

4. Statistically Influencing Wells’ Quanta=1+ “X” Probability Factor

Many researchers estimate the patients they studied exhaled severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at an estimated rate of up to 100,000 particles per minute.

“A COVID-19 patient exhales millions of SARS-CoV-2 particles per hour,” say Maosheng Yao (Peking University, Beijing) and colleagues.

With only a hand full of infected people entering an average room with poor ventilation for only minutes leaves millions of deadly bio-agents lingering in the air and surfaces to ambush its next prey for replication.

Even being a very technologically advanced race, it still leaves us limited in choices when facing the vast numbers of an exponential threat only microns in size yet as deadly as a tank to those at most risk.

We must not allow the novel coronavirus to invade our land and bodies. Waiting for a vaccine so humans and this new virus can co-exist on earth together is akin to surrendering!

We must fight the X factor in Wells’ Quanta equation by putting the focus on nuclei defense, alongside nuclear defense as a vital part of our national security!

Similar to any battle, if equal, considering one’s weaknesses and strengths, the invaders must be matched 10 to 1. This is achievable now through proton and photon management solutions that will unleash a counter-battery defense measure using quantum energy and quanta matter munitions that are harmless to humans and lethal to infectious bio-agents.

5. Nucleophilic Attack Strategies: NAS Countermeasures – Out Number Bio-agent Threats!

Manufacturable by the trillions with ease, these seek and destroy soldiers get their name broken down into the word “Nucleo,” which refers to the nucleus and the Latin word “phile,” which means loving. Nucleophiles are rich in electrons and, thus, donate electron pairs to electrophiles to form covalent bonds in chemical reactions that can destroy a virus! These substances are best noticed with lone pairs, pi bonds, and negative charges like the hydroxyl OH- ions created by the Quanta Humidifier™ are prime examples of nucleophile substances.

6. Human Safe Airborne Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) OH- Hydroxylated Humidification

H2O exposed to electrolysis involved in a catalytic process creates very powerful antimicrobial hydroxyls, or hydroxyl ions (OH). Water (H2O) is split into Hydrogen Ions (H+) and Hydroxyl Ions (OH-).

OH− consists of an oxygen, and hydrogen atom held together by a covalent bond and carries a negative electric charge. It is an essential and beneficial constituent of electrolyzed water.

The pure oxygen O1 molecules or atomic oxygen that is released are highly reactive and will readily combine with hydrogen (H) atoms that are found in the humidity in the air to make more hydroxyls, which in turn, create additional human-friendly oxidizers to purify the air.

These are called hydroxyl radicals, a potent antimicrobial air-purifying agent, safer than ozone and without the undesirable side effects commonly associated with air cleaners whose primary method of air cleansing relies on chemicals, UVC or ozone.

7. Hydroxylated Humidification Known Effects on Pathogens

The hydroxyl radical can damage virtually all types of macromolecules: carbohydrates, nucleic acids (mutations), lipids (lipid peroxidation), and amino acids. The hydroxyl radical has a very short in vivo half-life of approximately 10−9 seconds and high reactivity. This makes it a hazardous compound to a virus or organism.

However, while lethal to microorganisms. Humans, animals, and plants have evolved to coexist with hydroxyl radicals, and hydroxyl radicals cannot enter the bloodstream or tissues within the body.

Hydroxyl radicals attack essential cell components and are therefore lethal to pathogenic viruses and bacteria (both gram -ve and +ve) – both in the air and on surfaces. Pathogenic viruses suffer from the oxidation of their surface structures. Hydroxyl radicals disrupt the lipid envelope and/or capsid around the virus, causing lysing. They also penetrate the virus’s interior and disrupt the genome. These actions inactivate the virus. Hydroxyl radicals also pass through the outer cell wall structures of bacteria and oxidize the membrane responsible for electron transport, making the organism non-viable.

These highly reactive hydroxyl ions are negatively charged hydroxyls in water that can easily cause damage to a positively charged viral protein coat or cell membrane because it is not repelled, as a proton is ripped from the virus — the by-product of the reaction results in water vapor (H2O) being formed by a proton extraction attack suffered by the virus.

8. Hydroxylated Humidification Known Effects on Allergens

Hydroxyl radicals have been shown to modify the IgE-binding capacity in pollen, spores, and pet dander through the degradation and modification of the tertiary structure and/or the induction of protein denaturation and/or aggregation, resulting in a modified allergen structure. Hydroxyl radicals oxidize their protein structures, for example, causing protein backbone damage due primarily to a hydrogen abstraction of oxygen addition. Both hydroxyl radical initiate oxidation mechanisms that result in a modified allergen structure. The immune system no longer recognizes modified allergen structures, and therefore, histamine and other chemical mediators are not commonly released.

9 Conclusion

This problem has driven the market to come up with innovative methods for safe, effective, and efficient bioaerosol decontamination processes.

This reflects the fact that hydroxyls and the secondary organic oxidants they generate kill microorganisms by the physical process of attacking the chemicals in their cell walls.

Novel and emerging technologies designed to reduce or eliminate the threat of infectious disease in hospitals and clinics, as well as threats against military personnel and civilians, is crucial for social and economic stability.

This innovation is possible because of the Quanta Humidifier’s fully submersible “Hydroxyl Reactor” inside of a very cost-effective compact form factor, Conventional Hydroxyl production requires huge fans and strong UVA lights that simply are not practical for most living and working situations. The Quanta Humidifier opens the door to very high Hydroxyl production under nearly silent conditions requiring only 24 volts operation power making it perfect for portable applications.

Titanium and ruthenium coated plates designed for the electrolysis process to react with a mix of very complex solids and various oxides, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium carbonate, calcium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride are all used in the catalytic beads that cause the hydrogen bond to be stripped away without using UV to create powerful air cleaning hydroxyls.

Sample the body of research supporting waters role in Nucleophilic Attack Strategies: NAS Countermeasures and the scientific knowledge for design innovations leading to the Quanta Humidifier using the world’s first and only fully submersible “Hydroxyl Reactor”!

Nucleophilic Attack by OH2 or OH–: A Detailed Investigation on pH-Dependent Performance of a Ru Catalyst (Ruthenium) Publication Date:September 25, 2018 https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.organomet.8b00544

Water Oxidation Catalysts Volume 74, Pages 366 (2019)

https://www.sciencedirect.com/bookseries/advances-in-inorganic-chemistry/vol/74/suppl/C

Chapter Seven – Recent advances in electrodes modified with ruthenium complexes for electrochemical and photoelectrochemical water oxidation, Advances in Inorganic Chemistry Volume 74, 2019, Pages 305-341

TongYangaHongYinaLi-HuiGaobKe-ZhiWangaDongpengYana

There still remain several challenges regarding successful water spitting in artificial photosynthesis. The approach of using catalysts/photosensitizers immobilized on electrode surfaces toward water oxidation into dioxygen has attracted considerable interest recently. This can be attributed partly to their significantly improved durability and convenience for practical applications, as compared to homogeneous molecular systems. Notable progress in this context has been achieved using ruthenium complexes. This review highlights recent progress regarding electrodes modified with such complexes as the catalysts/photochromophores toward electrochemical and photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation.

https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.adioch.2019.03.006

Quantum-chemical insight into ruthenium O–O bond formation

According to our calculations, a combined non-covalent interaction between isoquinolines, which have quite an extended p-system, relatively large dipole moment and high polarizability, leads to an apparent stacking in encounter complex EC(isoq) . In a calculated EC(isoq), the distance between the ruthenium-bound oxygen atoms, O1 and O2, is 3.22 Å.

Current Opinion in Chemical Biology

Volume 7, Issue 6, December 2003, Pages 666-673

Water-oxidation is catalyzed by a manganese cluster and gives the organism an abundant source of electrons. The principles of photosynthesis have inspired chemists to mimic these reactions in artificial molecular assemblies. Synthetic light-harvesting antennae and light-induced charge separation systems have been demonstrated by several groups. More recently, there has been an increasing effort to mimic Photo-system II by coupling light-driven charge separation to water oxidation, catalyzed by synthetic manganese complexes.

Hydroxyl Reactor and Catalytic Bead Composition

Ruthenium

Pronunciation /ruːˈθiːniəm/ ​(roo-THEE-nee-əm)

Appearance silvery white metallic

Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Ru) 101.07(2)[1]

Ruthenium is a chemical element with the symbol Ru and atomic number 44. It is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table. Like the other metals of the platinum group, ruthenium is inert to most other chemicals.

Electrical resistivity 71 nΩ·m (at 0 °C)

Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[3]

Calcium Carbonate

Properties

Chemical formula CaCO3

Molar mass 100.0869 g/mol

Appearance Fine white powder; chalky taste

Odor odorless

Density 2.711 g/cm3 (calcite)

2.83 g/cm3 (aragonite)

Melting point 1,339 °C (2,442 °F; 1,612 K) (calcite)

825 °C (1,517 °F; 1,098 K) (aragonite)[4][5]

Boiling point decomposes

Solubility in water 0.013 g/L (25 °C)[1][2]

Magnesium Hydroxide Mg(OH)2.

Properties

Chemical formula Mg(OH)2

Molar mass 58.3197 g/mol

Appearance White solid

Odor Odorless

Density 2.3446 g/cm3

Melting point 350 °C (662 °F; 623 K) decomposes

Solubility in water

0.00064 g/100 mL (25 °C)

0.004 g/100 mL (100 °C)

Magnesium Carbonate

Properties

Chemical formula MgCO3

Molar mass 84.3139 g/mol (anhydrous)

Appearance white solid

hygroscopic

Odor odorless

Density 2.958 g/cm3 (anhydrous)

2.825 g/cm3 (dihydrate)

1.837 g/cm3 (trihydrate)

1.73 g/cm3 (pentahydrate)

Melting point 350 °C (662 °F; 623 K)

decomposes (anhydrous)

165 °C (329 °F; 438 K)

(trihydrate)

Solubility in water anhydrous:

0.0139 g/100ml (25 °C)

0.00603 g/100ml (100 °C)[1]

Calcium Sulfate

Properties

Chemical formula CaSO4

Molar mass 136.14 g/mol (anhydrous)

145.15 g/mol (hemihydrate)

172.172 g/mol (dihydrate)

Appearance white solid

Odor odorless

Density 2.96 g/cm3 (anhydrous)

2.32 g/cm3 (dihydrate)

Melting point 1,460 °C (2,660 °F; 1,730 K) (anhydrous)

Solubility in water 0.21g/100ml at 20 °C (anhydrous)[1]

0.24 g/100ml at 20 °C (dihydrate)[2]

Magnesium Sulfate

Properties

Chemical formula MgSO4

Molar mass 120.366 g/mol (anhydrous)

138.38 g/mol (monohydrate)

174.41 g/mol (trihydrate)

210.44 g/mol (pentahydrate)

228.46 g/mol (hexahydrate)

246.47 g/mol (heptahydrate)

Appearance white crystalline solid

Odor odorless

Density 2.66 g/cm3 (anhydrous)

2.445 g/cm3 (monohydrate)

1.68 g/cm3 (heptahydrate)

1.512 g/cm3 (11-hydrate)

Melting point anhydrous decomposes at 1,124 °C

monohydrate decomposes at 200 °C

heptahydrate decomposes at 150 °C

undecahydrate decomposes at 2 °C

Solubility in water anhydrous

26.9 g/100 mL (0 °C)

35.1 g/100 mL (20 °C)

50.2 g/100 mL (100 °C)

heptahydrate

113 g/100 mL (20 °C)

Calcium Chloride

Properties

Chemical formula CaCl2

Molar mass 110.98 g·mol−1

Appearance White powder, hygroscopic

Odor Odorless

Density

2.15 g/cm3 (anhydrous)

2.24 g/cm3 (monohydrate)

1.85 g/cm3 (dihydrate)

1.83 g/cm3 (tetrahydrate)

1.71 g/cm3 (hexahydrate)[1]

Melting point 772–775 °C (1,422–1,427 °F; 1,045–1,048 K)

anhydrous[5]

260 °C (500 °F; 533 K)

monohydrate, decomposes

175 °C (347 °F; 448 K)

dihydrate, decomposes

45.5 °C (113.9 °F; 318.6 K)

tetrahydrate, decomposes[5]

30 °C (86 °F; 303 K)

hexahydrate, decomposes[1]

Boiling point 1,935 °C (3,515 °F; 2,208 K) anhydrous[1]

Solubility in water Anhydrous:

74.5 g/100 mL (20 °C)[2]

Hexahydrate:

49.4 g/100 mL (−25 °C)

59.5 g/100 mL (0 °C)

65 g/100 mL (10 °C)

81.1 g/100 mL (25 °C)[1]

102.2 g/100 mL (30.2 °C)

α-Tetrahydrate:

90.8 g/100 mL (20 °C)

114.4 g/100 mL (40 °C)

Dihydrate:

134.5 g/100 mL (60 °C)

152.4 g/100 mL (100 °C)[3]

Magnesium Chloride

Properties

Chemical formula MgCl2

Molar mass 95.211 g/mol (anhydrous)

203.31 g/mol (hexahydrate)

Appearance white or colourless crystalline solid

Density 2.32 g/cm3 (anhydrous)

1.569 g/cm3 (hexahydrate)

Melting point 714 °C (1,317 °F; 987 K) 117 °C (243 °F; 390 K) (hexahydrate)

on rapid heating: slow heating leads to decomposition from 300 °C (572 °F; 573 K)

Boiling point 1,412 °C (2,574 °F; 1,685 K)

Solubility in water anhydrous

52.9 g/100 mL (0 °C)

54.3 g/100 mL (20 °C)

72.6 g/100 mL (100 °C)

hexahydrate

235 g/100 mL (20 °C)